EGR, SCR, and DPF Technology to Reduce Diesel Engine Emissions

Apr 4, 2024

Diesel engines have become the backbone of many industrial sectors, from transportation to power generation. However, despite being efficient in terms of fuel consumption, diesel engines are known to be significant contributors to air pollutant emissions as well. To overcome this, advanced technologies including EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction), and DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) have been developed.

Differences in How EGR, SCR, and DPF Work

EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation): EGR is a technology that flows some of the exhaust gases back into the engine intake. This reduces the combustion temperature and reduces the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by reducing the availability of oxygen in the combustion process.

SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction): SCR uses a reagent, usually AdBlue (urea), which is sprayed into the exhaust gas stream. This reagent reacts with NOx in the catalyst to convert it into nitrogen and water, which is then expelled through the exhaust.

DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter): The DPF is responsible for capturing solid particles that result from diesel combustion. These particles consist of carbon black and other toxic chemicals. The DPF uses a ceramic or metal substrate that retains the particles while allowing the exhaust gases to flow through.

The Use of EGR, SCR, and DPF

The use of EGR, SCR, and DPF technologies has a significant impact on optimizing overall emissions reduction. EGR reduces NOx emissions significantly, as the resulting reduction in combustion temperature can reduce NOx formation by up to 50%. SCR is highly effective in reducing NOx emissions, with efficiency levels reaching more than 90%. DPF effectively reduces particulate emissions by 90%, making it highly effective in reducing air pollution.

Technical Challenges in Implementation

The implementation of the technologies have challenges.

  • Maintenance: require regular maintenance, such as regeneration, to remove particle build-up.
  • Size and Weight: these technologies can add to the size and weight of the vehicle, which can be a challenge in design and manufacturing.
  • Soot: Increases soot particle emissions and possible combustion chamber deposits

Best Technology: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

In many cases, SCR has proven to be the most effective technology in reducing NOx emissions. Its high efficiency, along with fast processing rates, make it a top choice in the face of stringent emissions regulations. SCR has efficiency levels reaching more than 90%, while simultaneously reducing HC and CO emissions by 50-90%, and PM emissions by 30-50%.